Chapter 2 Contribution of Western and Indian Sociologists


Chapter 2 Contribution of Western and Indian Sociologists

1. (A) Choose the correct alternative and complete the statements.

Question 1.
The Industrial Revolution took place in ………………..
(North America / Europe / Australia)


Question 2.
Science is based on …………………
(beliefs / facts / guess work)


Question 3.
Significant work has been done on kinship organisation in India, by female sociologist ………………
(Iravati Karve / Suma Chitnis / Neera Desai)

Iravati Karve

Question 4.
The ……………….. stage of societal growth is characterised by explanations which are abstract but not God-centred.
(Theological / Metaphysical / Positive)

1. (B) Correct the incorrect pair.

Question 1.
(a) Abdul Rahman Ibn-Khaldun – North Africa
(b) Auguste Comte – France
(c) Harriet Martineau – England
(d) Karl Marx – Russia
(d) Karl Marx – Germany

1. (C) Identify the appropriate term from the given options.

(Polarization. M. N. Srinivas, R. N. Mukherjee)
Question 1.
Marx argues that classes will become hostile towards each other.


Question 2.
The Indian sociologist who coined the term westernisation.
M. N. Srinivas

1. (D) Correct the underlined words and complete the sentence.

Question 1.
The stage of society where empirical evidence forms the basis for explanation is the theological stage.

The stage of society where empirical evidence forms the basis for explanation is the positive / scientific stage.

Question 2.
The book ‘Le Suicide’ was written by Hobbes.

The book ‘Le Suicide’ was written by Emile Durkheim

2. Write short notes.

Question 1.
Contribution of G. S. Ghurye to Indian Sociology.
1. Govind Sadashiv Ghurye was the first who introduced sociology in India after independence. Therefore, he is considered as the ‘Father of Indian Sociology’. He established ‘Indian Sociological Society’ and started the journal ‘Sociological Bulletin’.

2. Ghurye’s work on scheduled tribes, were based on the historical, administrative and social dimensions of Indian tribes. He wanted the tribals to be integrated with the wider Indian society. He has written on tribes like Mahadev Kolis in Maharashtra. His book, ‘Caste and Race in India’ is one of the most important contribution to Indian sociology.

3. Ghurye referred to the long process of Hinduisation of the tribes from different parts of India. He considered cultural unity between tribes and caste as the only means to promote integration in Indian society.

4. His book, ‘Caste and Race in India’, published in 1932 combines historical, anthropological and sociological perspectives to understand caste and kinship system in India.

Question 2.
Types of suicide according to Durkheim.
Suicide is a type of death carried by an individual intentionally or deliberately. According to Durkheim suicide is a social phenomenon. Following are the types of suicide.
1. Egoistic suicide : It takes place when an individual is very much self-centred and least bothered about the other members of society, e.g., it is committed by people who become introvert and have less desires to live in the company of others, suicide rates are higher for those widowed, single and divorced.

2. Anomic suicide : When situations go against the norms and values of a person. In such condition individual finds it difficult to face the situation and adjust with that, e.g., suicide of farmers.

3. Altruistic suicide : This type of suicide is different from egoistic suicide. This type of suicide means sacrificing own life for the betterment of people or society, e.g., Sati system, a patient commits suicide for the sake of family.

4. Fatalistic suicide : When an individual is under excessive control from the outside factors fatalistic suicide takes place e.g., Dowry death. According to Durkheim social situations, circumstances, factors are responsible for suicide and become a ‘social fact.’

3. Differentiate between.

Question 1.
Theological Stage and Positive Stage.

Theological Stage

Positive Stage

(i) Theological stage is the first stage of Comte’s Law of three stages.

(i) Positive stage is last or third stage of Comte’s law of three stages.

(ii) Human thinking, ideas and views were influenced by spiritual and supernatural factors.

(ii) This is an improved rational, scientific form of human thinking.

(iii) All societies believed that God controls all events in the world.

(iii) Instead of imagination and superstitious belief, societies turn towards empirical scientific approach.

(iv) Example : Natural calamities like flood, drought etc., were the expressions of God’s anger.

(iv) Example : Discoveries of Newton and Galileo, enlightement.

Question 2.
Anomic Suicide and Altruistic Suicide.

Anomic Suicide

Altruistic Suicide

(i) Anomic suicide takes place in situations where one is not able to adjust with circumstances which arise unexpectedly.

(i) Altruistic suicide means, an individual commits suicide with the object of doing well for others.

(ii) This is due to economic instability and personal struggle.

(ii) This is due to fanatical love for one’s own community.

(iii) It reflects a normlessness.

(iii) It is value-oriented.

(iv) Example : Businessman committed suicide due economic depression or extreme prosperity.

(iv) Example : Sati system (committed by Indian women in the past), Hara-kiri (committed by Japanese)

4. (A) Complete the concept maps.

Question 1.


4. (B) State whether the following statements are true or false with reasons.

Question 1.
According to Marx, capitalism gives rise to we feeling among workers.

This statement is True.

  1. Capitalists accumulate profit through the exploitation of labour. The poverty of the workers’ class grows with increasing exploitation of labour.
  2. Economic exploitation and inhuman conditions lead to the increasing alienation of workers.
  3. The classes tend to become internally homogeneous and class struggle, more intensified and creates class solidarity and we feeling among the workers.

Question 2.
Iravati Karve has made significant contribution to the study of Kinship in India.
This statement is True.

  1. Iravati Karve has contributed in the field of Sociology as well as Anthropology. She wrote a book ‘Kinship Organization in India’ in which she describes major kinship systems in India.
  2. Kinship is one of the concepts which is socially and culturally related with factors like family, caste and languages in India.
  3. According to her, kinship system is based on the geographical and linguistic group differences.
    Thus, Iravati Karve has made significant contribution to the study of Kinship in India

5. Give your personal response.

Question 1.
Do you think globalization has led to polarization of classes? Discuss with relevant examples of your own.
Yes, globalization has led to polarization of classes. This has led to segregation of people in the society that may emerge from income inequality, economic restructuring etc. It leads to differentiation of groups on the basis of high income and low income. Skilled people manage to get high paying jobs while the less educated/skilled people receive low wages.

Question 2.
Do you think Kinship bonds are weakening? Give reasons for your response?

Yes, I think as we Indians are progressing and trying to establish our nation as a developed nation, we on the other side are losing importance of our family ties. Kinship bonds means ties based on blood and marriage.
Following are some of the reasons which are axing Kinship bonds.

  1. Urbanisation, one of the major reasons of migration of people from rural to urban resulting into formation of a nuclear family.
  2. Modernisation, making individuals self-centred, career oriented simultaneously detach from family.
  3. Change in the medium of recreation, earlier it was family get together or celebration of festivals or religious ceremony now it is Cinema Hall or Visit to Mall.
  4. Increasing control of electronic gadgets like T.V., Mobile Internet, etc., which make virtual world closer but taxing to kinship bond, care and attachment.
  5. Dominance of materialistic world results into abundance of needs. Above all, todays smart and modern generation is chopping their own roots, meaning, weakening kinship bonds.

6. Answer the following in detail (About 150-200 words).

Question 1.
You have studied about Comte’s Law of Three Stages of human thought. With reference to the first and third stage, comment on the challenges it poses for Indian society.

Auguste Comte believed that the evolution of human mind had taken place along with the evolution of the individual mind. Comte’s social philosophy is based on the concept of three stage of human thought.

Theological stage : In this stage human beings believed in supernatural and spiritual factors. It was believed that three was a control of God on all events in the world. The human mind, at this level, supposed that all phenomena was produced by the immediate action of supernatural beings. For example, all natural calamities were the expressions of God’s anger. This stage is dominated by priests and ruled by military men.
Following are the challenges which poses for Indian society:

  1. During this stage, human mind is dominated by sentiments, feelings and emotions.
  2. Certain section of Indian society believed that all actions/events happened due to power of God/ Supernatural beings.
    E.g. drought, flood, earthquake etc., natural calamities were nothing but anger of God.
  3. Explanation for all happening events are the form of myths concerning spirits and supernatural beings.
  4. During this stage, military society was basically dying and priests were dominated.
  5. In short, due to effect of theological stage there was lack of logical and orderly thinking in the Indian society.

Positive/Scientific stage : Comte says, scientific stage is an improved and scientific form of human thinking. Now, instead of imagination, we turn to observation. Since Reason and examination were basic planks of knowledge at this stage hence, one seeks to establish laws which link facts and which govern social life.

Effect of scientific stage on Indian Society:

  1. Finally, in this stage, Indian society turned towards the scientific way of thinking.
  2. Instead of imaginations, society turned towards observation, reason and examination all these were basic planks of knowledge.
  3. The concept of God started vanishing from human mind.
  4. Society adopted the scientific rational way of thinking and there is no place for any belief or superstition in it.
  5. In this way, Comte’s first and third stage affected the Indian Society.

Intext Questions and Answers

ACTIVITY (Textbook Page No. 16)

Question 1.
Discuss how ‘polarization of classes’ and ‘class solidarity’ are relevant in the present times.
In present times, polarization of classes and class solidarity is associated with the segregation within a society which are immediate cause of emergence of income inequality, economic displacements, formation of various social groups from high income to low income, economic restructuring particularly in cities, economic inequality etc.

Question 2.
Read newspaper articles related to caste issues (e.g. representation, atrocities, reservation) and share the findings with your class. (Textbook Page No. 19)

Reference : Times of India (March 29, 2019)
The Indian Express (June 6, 2019)
Times of India (June 3, 2019)