Chapter 6 Second Urbanisation in India


Chapter 6 Second Urbanisation in India

1A. Choose the correct alternative and write the complete sentences.

Question 1.
Ashmaka is the name in ____________ language.

(a) Pali
(b) Sanskrit
(c) Ardhamagadhi
(d) Prakrit
(b) Sanskrit

Question 2.
The capital of Kashi Mahajanapadas was ____________
(a) Gorakhpur
(b) Chandranagar
(c) Raj agriha
(d) Varanasi
(d) Varanasi

Question 3.
Gautam Buddha was born in ____________
(a) Kushinagara
(b) Sarnath
(c) Lumbini
(d) Pataliputra
(c) Lumbini

Question 4.
The river ____________ was the natural boundary between Uttara Panchala and Dakshina Panchala.

(a) Yamuna
(b) Bhagirathi
(c) Ganga
(d) Niranjana
(b) Bhagirathi

1B. Find the incorrect pair from set B and write the correct ones.

Question 1.

Set ‘A’

Set ‘B’

(a) Kosala


(b) Anga


(c) Matsya


(d) Gandhara


(c) Matsya – Virat Nagar

2. Choose the correct reason and complete the sentence.

Question 1.
Gautam Buddha travelled continuously for 45 years ____________
(a) in search of a Guru
(b) to practice austerities
(c) to preach dhamma
(d) to attain enlightenment
(c) to preach dhamma

3. Complete the concept maps.

Question 1.


4. Explain the following statements with reasons.

Question 1.
The rise of Mahajanpadas came into being.

  • By 600 B.C.E. sixteen Mahajanapadas were established in India, from the northwest region to Magadha.
  • Conquering other janapadas and annexing their territory permanently to one’s own, became a regular practice in the times of Mahajanapadas.
  • Ultimately, this conflict resulted in the creation of a large empire like Magadha.
  • Ancient India once again witnessed the rise of cities.

Question 2.
The process of second urbanisation began in ancient India.

  • The Janapadas with definite geographic borders and administrative systems were established roughly around 1000 B.C.E.
  • It resulted in the creation of sixteen Mahajanapadas from Afghanistan stretching to the banks of the Godavari in the south.
  • The capital cities of the mahajanapadas and some other cities, which flourished because of prospering trade once again brought the age of urbanisation in India.
  • It is known as the ‘Second Urbanisation’.
  • By the 6th century B.C.E. these and a few other cities had become very prosperous.
  • Thus, the process of second urbanisation began in ancient India.

Question 3.
Vardhamana Mahavira and Gautama Buddha attracted a large number of followers.

  • Among the various stream of thought that arose in the 6th B.C.E, a large number of people were attracted to the teaching of Vardhamana Mahavira and Gautama Buddha.
  • Their teachings showed the way to overcome the disparity in the society resulted from the Varna and caste system.
  • At the age of 42, Vardhamana Mahavira attained absolute knowledge (Keval Dnyana).
  • Thereafter, people started addressing him as ‘Kevali’, ‘Jina’ and ‘Mahavira’.
  • While Buddha attained enlightenment at the age of 35. After that, he was known as ‘Buddha’, ‘Tathagata’ and also as ‘Shakyamuni’.

5. Explain the following concepts.

Question 1.
Nastik Darshan

  • Nastik Darshan refers to the Jain and the Buddhist schools of thought.
  • In other words, both, the Jain and the Buddhist schools of thought are considered as the ‘nastik’
  • Both refuse to accept the authority of the Vedas and the Vedic rituals.
  • Both the schools had followers in large numbers from all strata of the society.

Question 2.
The eightfold path was preached by Gautama Buddha.

Gautama Buddha explained the eightfold path by including:

  • Samyak Drishti (To understand and accept that nothing happens against the rules of nature)
  • Samyak Sankalp (Right determination)
  • Samyak Vacha (Right speech)
  • Samyak Karmanta (Right behaviour)
  • Samyak Aajiva (Livelihood by right means)
  • Samyak Vyayam (Conscious avoidance of offensive things)
  • Samyak Smriti (Watchfulness and memory of right things)
  • Samyak Samadhi (Establishing the mind firmly in equanimity; a state beyond pleasure and sorrow)

6. Describe the administrative system of the Mahajanapadas with the help of the following points.

Question 1.
(a) Terms showing types of states
(b) King’s installation
(c) Authority of the king
(d) Decision-making

(a) Terms showing types of states: Rajya, Swarajya, Bhavjya, Vairajya, Maharajya, Samrajya, and Prameshthya were the different types of states that existed during the 6th B.C.E.

(b) King’s installation: A ‘Raja’ was expected to be a ‘Kshtriya’ and according to the existing norms, a Brahmin was expected to refrain from accepting the position of a Raja. The position of Raja was generally hereditary. However, at times, a king was elected by the people.

(c) Authority of the king: The coronation of a king gave him absolute authority over his subjects. He was the one to decide the amount of taxes to be collected from them. He was the ultimate lord of all the land in his kingdom and so he could donate any portion of that land according to his wish. Nevertheless, his power was not totally unrestricted.

(d) Decision-making: The king made his decisions by seeking advice from his officials such as Purohita, Senani, Amatya, Gramani, etc. Besides, there was an assembly of people of all classes. When it assembled everybody present could participate in the decision-making process. There were times when people’s assemblies made a king steps down from the throne.

Activity 1.

Collect and compile the information about Jain Tirthankaras.

A “Tirthankara” is a saviour and spiritual teacher of the Jain dharma. Tirthankara in Sanskrit means ‘Ford-maker’ and is also known as “Jina” or “Victor”.
A Tirthankara is a rare individual who has conquered samsara, the cycle of death and rebirth
There were 24 Tirthankaras in Jainism. They are as follows:

  1. Lord Rishabhdev
  2. Lord Ajitnath
  3. Lord Sambhavnath
  4. Lord Abhinandananath
  5. Lord Sumatinath
  6. Lord Padmaprabh
  7. Lord Suparshvanath
  8. Lord Chandraprabh
  9. Lord Suvidhinath Swami or Puspadanta
  10. Lord Sheetalnath
  11. Lord Shreyansnath
  12. Lord Vasupujya
  13. Lord Vimalnath
  14. Lord Anantnath
  15. Lord Dharmnath
  16. Lord Shantinath
  17. Lord Kunthunath
  18. Lord Aranath
  19. Lord Mallinath
  20. Lord Munisuvrat
  21. Lord Naminath
  22. Lord Neminath
  23. Lord Parshvanath
  24. Lord Mahavir

Activity 2.

Collect information about Jataka stories. Select any of the Jataka stories and present, them as a stage play.

Students have to do it on their own.