Chapter 8 World Wars and India


Chapter 8 World Wars and India

1A. Choose the correct alternative and rewrite the statement.

Question 1.
When Austria declared war against Serbia, it was _________, who helped Serbia.
(a) Germany
(b) America
(c) Hungary
(d) Russia
(d) Russia

Question 2.
The first atom bomb was dropped on the city of _________ during the aerial attack of America on Japan.

(a) Nagasaki
(b) Hiroshima
(c) Pearl Harbour
(d) Stalingrad
(b) Hiroshima

1B. Find the incorrect pair from group ‘B’ and write the corrected one.

Question 1.

Italy – Benito Mussolini

2. Write the names of historical places/persons/events.

Question 1.
The name of the group of nations including England, France, Russia, Italy, and America in the First World War –
Allied Nations

Question 2.
The name of the group of nations including Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria in the First World War –
Central Powers

3. Write short notes.

Question 1.
‘League of Nations.

  1. A peace-loving American president Woodrow Wilson took a lead in the formation of the League of Nations.
  2. All the nations involved in the war felt the need to create some solution to avoid any situation that could lead to war.
  3. The main objectives of the League of Nations were –
    • finding peaceful solutions for conflicts between nations.
    • establishing peace in the world.
  4. Austria, Germany, and other defeated nations were not allowed to become members of the league.
  5. America was not a member of the league so England and France retained their dominance in the league.

Question 2.
Dr. Kotnis.

  • Dr. Dwarkanath Kotnis was born on 10th October 1910 at Solapur.
  • When Japan had attacked China in 1937, the Chinese Government requested Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru to send a team of doctors to attend to the injured Chinese soldiers.
  • Dr. Kotnis was the chief of the team of Indian doctors sent to China.
  • He attended the Chinese soldiers for years but unfortunately died in China on 9th December 1942 in the plague epidemic.
  • Dr. Kotnis by the virtue of his selfless work formed the bridge of friendship between India and China.
  • The eminent Indian filmmaker, V. Shantaram made a film on his life, entitled ‘Dr. Kotnis Ki Amar Kahani’ which immortalized Dr. Kotnis’ memory.

4. Explain the following statements with reasons.

Question 1.
‘The Treaty of Versailles’ had the seeds of the Second World War. The Text does not have any comment to this effect.

  • The Treaty of Versailles was signed between the Allied nations and Germany at Versailles palace in 1919. It was drafted by American President Woodrow Wilson.
  • The Treaty of Versailles was very harsh on Germany because Germany had lost the war.
  • Germany was forced to accept the responsibility for the war damages suffered by the Allies.
  • The victorious powers had deprived Germany of huge tracts of its territory. Germany was burdened with an immense war indemnity.
  • The peace settlement at Paris was made in a spirit of revenge. The Germans felt that too much injustice had been done to them.
  • The German economy was ruined completely. People were starving and the government was in chaos.
  • It was impossible for a proud German race to forget the consequences of the war, which they had lost so humiliatingly.
  • This fuelled the rise of Nazism in Germany which adopted the policy of aggression.
  • In this way, the Treaty of Versailles sowed the seeds of the Second World War.

Question 2.
The British Government in India decided to return home.

  • The Second World War ended in the month of August 1945 with the surrender of Japan.
  • In this war, England emerged victoriously but it lost heavily in terms of human life and economic conditions.
  • As a result of this England grew weaker. The British Government in India is now aware that Indian soldiers and people are not as meek and submissive as before, ruling them was no easier.
  • India was not going to be the perennial source of profit for them as it used to be. There was a lot of pressure on England to give freedom to its colonies. Freedom struggles began in India which demanded ‘Poorna Swarajya’ which means total independence. Hence, the British Government in India decided to return home.

5. Answer the following questions in detail.

Question 1.
Give the causes of the Second World War.
(i) Dissatisfaction with the Treaty of Versailles
(ii) Rise of Hitler
(iii) Rise of Communism
(iv) Hitler’s attack on Poland
(v) Hitler’s violation of the Non-aggression Pact
The Second World War was fought between 1939 to 1945. Following were the causes of the Second World War:
(i) Dissatisfaction with the Treaty of Versailles: The Treaty of Versailles was very harsh on Germany. It was made in a spirit of revenge. Germany was burdened with huge war indemnity. The German economy was ruined completely. This fuelled the rise of Nazism in Germany.

(ii) Rise of Hitler: The Nazis under the leadership of Hitler grabbed power in Germany. Hitler began to escalate Germany’s military power so as to avenge the demeaning conditions imposed on Germany by the treaty of Versailles. He focussed on increasing the strength of the military as well as the navy.

(iii) Rise of Communism: Meanwhile, Soviet Russia, a communist nation was becoming more powerful. It made nations like England, France, America uneasy. Soviet Russia and imperialistic Germany viewed each other as arch enemies. England and France ignored the advances of Germany thinking that it will keep a check on the rising power of Soviet Russia.

(iv) Hitler’s attack on Poland: In 1938, Hitler won the Sudeten province in Czechoslovakia, which was populated in majority by people of German origin. In 1939, he attacked Poland which was looked upon as a neutral country by all European nations. In spite of this, Hitler attacked Poland. Therefore, England declared war against Germany.

(v) Hitler’s violation of the Non-aggression pact: Denmark, Norway surrendered to Germany. Germany conquered Holland, Belgium, and France. In 1939, Hitler violated the ‘Non-aggression Pact’ made with Stalin and attacked Soviet Russia so Stalin declared war against Germany.

Question 2.
Why did Indian people participate in the national movement in great numbers?

  • India was a colony of the British during wartime. England started exploiting their colonies to meet the needs of war.
  • During wartime, England felt an increasing need for manpower and money. Therefore, the British Government began recruiting army personnel from India.
  • At times the recruitment was enforced on Indians.
  • Extra taxes were levied on Indians for raising funds. Taxes on trade and industries were raised.
  • During the war period prices of essential commodities went up. Indians suffered from the problems of inflation, hike in prices, increasing unemployment caused by the industrial recession.
  • Indians could see that the exploitative rule of the British was responsible for this miserable state of affairs.
  • Hence, Indians from all strata of society, workers, farmers, and the middle class joined in large numbers in the national movements against British rule.